Laboratory Animal Center, Dalian Medical University
National key research and development program
目的：探究社会性不同的拉布拉多犬认知能力是否存在差异。 方法：参照瑞典工作犬协会（the Swedish Working Dog Association）创建的犬气质评估测试（Dog Mentality Assessment,DMA），使用DMA测试中的社会接触、游戏Ⅰ、距离游戏、扮鬼和游戏Ⅱ5个子测试中的12个行为变量来评估犬的社会性，根据评分标准对中国导盲犬大连培训基地提供的49只拉布拉多犬的社会性行为变量进行评分，使用聚类分析将其分为社会性高分组（n=15）和低分组（n=34）。根据Bray等人的犬认知发展系列测试（dog cognitive development battery，DCDB）建立了新的犬认知能力测试体系，对犬的社会线索使用、无法解决任务、抑制控制、认知灵活、工作记忆和多步骤解决任务等不同领域的认知能力进行测试，记录犬在测试中的行为表现及持续时长，统计分析社会性不同的犬认知能力是否存在差异。 结果：社会性高分组与低分组的犬在无法解决任务、抑制控制测试和多步骤解决任务中的行为变量上存在显著差异。在无法解决任务中，社会性高分组的犬注视人时长显著高于社会性低分组的犬（P=0.008），注视人潜伏时长显著低于社会性低分组的犬（P=0.0001）。在抑制控制测试中，社会性高分组的犬选择正确率显著高于社会性低分组的犬（P=0.034），选择时长显著低于社会性低分组的犬（P=0.039）。在多步骤解决任务中，社会性高分组的犬完成木桩任务数量显著高于社会性低分组的犬（P=0.044）；操作木桩时长占比显著低于社会性低分组的犬（P=0.05）；完成骨头盘任务平均时长显著高于社会性低分组的犬（P=0.037）；操作骨头盘时长占比显著低于社会性低分组的犬（P=0.038）。涉及到可操作仪器的测试中，社会性高分组的犬注视人时长高于社会性低分组的犬，操作仪器时长低于低分组的犬，但经统计无显著差异（P>0.05）。 结论：社会性不同的犬的认知能力存在差异。社会性好的拉布拉多犬表现出更强的认知能力，它们在测试时抑制冲动的能力更强，完成多步骤解决任务的能力更强，在遇到无法解决任务时更倾向于转变策略向人寻求新线索而不是执着于操作仪器。
Objective:Exploring whether there are differences in the cognitive abilities of socially different Labradors. Methods:The Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA) test created by the Swedish Working Dog Association was modified to use 12 behavioral variables from five subtests of the DMA test: Social contact, Play I, Distance-play, Ghosts and Play II to assess the sociability of the dogs. According to the scoring criteria,49 Labradors provided by The China Guide Dog Training Centre In Da Lian was scored on the social behavioral variables, which were classified into high (n=15) and low (n=34) sociability groups using cluster analysis. A new system for testing canine cognitive ability was developed based on Bray et al.'s Dog Cognitive Development Battery (DCDB), which tests different domains of cognitive ability such as social cue use, unsolvable task, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, working memory and multi-step problem solving task, and the dogs' behavioral performance and duration of the test were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed to determine whether there were differences in the cognitive abilities of socially diverse dogs. Results:Dogs in the high and low social subgroups differed significantly on behavioral variables in the unsolvable task, the inhibitory control test and the multi-step problem solving task. In the unsolvable task, dogs in the high social grouping average looked at people time for significantly longer than dogs in the low social grouping (P=0.008) and average looked at people for significantly less latency time than dogs in the low social grouping (P=0.0001). In the inhibitory control, dogs in the high social group chose correctly significantly more than dogs in the low social group (P=0.034) and chose for significantly less time than dogs in the low social group (P=0.039). In the multi-step problem solving task, dogs in the high social group successful completion number of stakes significantly higher than dogs in the low social group (P=0.044); the percentage of operation pale time was significantly lower than dogs in the low social group (P=0.05); the average latency time to solve bone task was significantly higher than dogs in the low social group (P=0.037); and the percentage of operation bone time was significantly lower than dogs in the low social group ( P=0.038). On tests involving manipulable apparatus, dogs in the high social group spent more time looking at people than dogs in the low social group and less time manipulating the apparatus than dogs in the low subgroup, but there were no statistically significant differences (P>0.05). Conclusions:High sociability labradors showed greater cognitive ability,they were more able to suppress impulses during the test, were more able to complete multi-step problem solving task and were more inclined to change strategies to seek new cues from people rather than obsessing over manipulating the apparatus when they were unable to solve a problem.