Institute of Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China
2022 年 5 月世界多个国家发生超过百例人猴痘病例,引发世界卫生组织的疫情爆发预警。 猴痘病毒与天花病毒同属,临床典型特征为皮疹,死亡率 1% ~ 10%。 突发疫情引起了世人的担忧,现有疫苗的有效性、应急药物的筛选,以及猴痘病毒学、免疫学与病理学机制的阐述,均对动物模型提出重大需求。本文就常用的食蟹猴模型、土拨鼠模型、松鼠模型、冈比亚袋鼠模型、睡鼠模型、狨猴模型、小鼠模型和兔模型等,针对模型研制中的动物选择、感染途径与剂量、模型病毒学和病理学特征等进行了详细的评述,并介绍了动物模型在致病与传播研究、药物与疫苗评价中的应用,希望可为研究人员研制及应用动物模型提供参考。
In May 2022, more than 100 cases of Monkeypox were identified in several countries, triggering an outbreak warning by the World Health Organization. Monkeypox virus and Smallpox virus belong to the same genus, and the typical clinical manifestation is a rash and a mortality rate of 1% ~ 10%. The sudden outbreak of Monkeypox has aroused concern worldwide, and the demand for an animal model for evaluating the efficiency of vaccines and drugs, as well as understanding its mechanisms of virology, immunology, and pathology, is urgent. In this paper, the common models using cynomolgus monkey, prairie dogs, squirrel, Gambian pouched rats, dormouse, marmoset, mouse, and rabbit were reviewed by focusing on the selection of animal species, infection route and dose, and characteristics of virology and pathology. The application of these animal models in studies on pathogenesis, transmission, and the evaluation of vaccines and drugs are introduced to provide references for the development and application of animal models for Monkeypox.